The future is now and it kind of sucks.
Paul Krugman reminds us of that in today’s column. He takes us back the 1979 cult classic, The Hitchhiker’s Guide To The Galaxy. In that book, Earth is dismissed as an archaic planet whose life forms “are so amazingly primitive that they still think digital watches are a pretty neat idea.” Yeah, well that was before the technology revolution. Now we have iWatches that remind us to stand when we’ve been sitting too long …. ugh.
So what happened to the future? We were supposed to have flying cars and they gave us 140 characters. We were supposed to have witty housekeeping robots. Instead we’re watching rumbas terrorize the dogs. We were supposed to have food pills but we’re still feeding ourselves. What do you want to eat? I don’t know, what do you want? Why can’t I just take a pill? We have pills for everything else. Can’t get a boner? Here’s your pill. Can’t pay attention? Have a pill. And what is hunger but a medical condition? It’s 2015 and we still haven’t cured that chronic disease.
Well things are looking up, you guys. Silicon Valley entrepreneurs are concocting food shakes to get you through the day. Hunger pangs? Drink this protein pancake batter. It’s not a food pill, but it’s a start. You still have to drink it but the only thing you dirty is a spoon and glass. If you use disposable plastic, clean up is a snap. Gulp, gulp, gulp, toss. Your JoeDog had a protein shake for lunch. Gulp, gulp, gulp, toss. Two hours later, he’s hungry as hell. Stupid science. Where’s my food pill?
So imagine — because why the hell not — you returned to your vehicle after a concert in Washington D.C. Police are everywhere. Your windows are bashed in and your new cookware is exploded into little tiny pieces. That would be odd, huh? Well, that’s what happened to an Alexandria man this week. He returned to his car and found his shit was destroyed by local law enforcement.
Your JoeDog read many accounts of this incident. As best as he can tell this is what happened: Around 5:00 p.m. on Sunday, officers on foot noticed a vehicle that they characterized as “suspicious in nature.” It was parked along a public street. What made it suspicious? The vehicle contained a pressure cooker and other “items of concern.”
What’s not clear is how those items were stored. Were they in bags or out in the open? Was this the result of a shopping trip or something more nefarious? The investigation continued and officers became more suspicious. An “odor of gasoline was detected.” Interesting. A vehicle with an internal combustion engine omitted an odor of gasoline. So then what happened?
The bomb squad arrived and police broke into the vehicle and blew up all the shit inside. Catastrophe averted! The country remains safe and sound. So what did they protect us from? After destroying everything in the car, police conducted a thorough investigation to determine exactly what they saved us from. They conducted thorough “hand search” of the vehicle and concluded their investigation “with negative results and nothing hazardous found.”
In other words, they saved us from a shopping trip.
Your JoeDog was down this morning. This site is hosted on the free plan at Amazon Web Services. Through the EC2 web portal, he was able to read the console logs of the downed instance. It was filled with entries which looked like this:
9443.085875 Write-error on swap-device (202:0:10258840)
9443.085875 Write-error on swap-device (202:0:10295632)
9443.085875 Write-error on swap-device (202:0:10320576)
9443.085875 Write-error on swap-device (202:0:10336216)
9443.085875 Write-error on swap-device (202:0:10395280)
So Your JoeDog plugged that error into the Google machine and it produced this Amazon EC2 forum entry. The Amazon rep asked that troubled soul if he could stop and start his instance. So Your JoeDog did a stop and start. That didn’t solve his problem, either. In the end, he was forced to clone the volume and bring up a whole new server. He took the opportunity to add more memory. Yeah, that means he’s no longer on the free plan but he can’t deal with the low-memory micro instance for another second. Not. One. More. Second.
So if you’re a troubled soul who found this entry because you googled “Write-error on swap-device” for your downed EC2 instance, here’s how you bring up a clone.
- EC2 Dashboard => Instances (select downed instance)
- Actions => Image => Create image (that’s going to take a while)
- On the left nav: Images => AMIs (select the new one)
- Select it, then hit Launch. (follow the instructions)
Once your new server is up and running, log in and scrutinize the environment. You should have all the content that was one the old one. It is, afterall, a clone. Once you’re feeling good about the new server, you can terminate the old one and delete the old image.
Your JoeDog found Richard Stallman to be the same in real life as he is on the Internets: a complete pain in the ass. He’s not just the how priest of free software, he’s also the choir. For example, most of us understand that when you buy hardware it comes with proprietary firmware. He gets worked up about that. The dude will inconvenience himself rather than compromise his commitment to free — as in freedom — software.
Actually, he’s a very nice guy but I’m still surprised to learn we have a anything in common. Yet we do! For example, did you know we
- Both prefer console based editors although Stallman uses that god awful emacs.
- Think C++ is one ugly-ass language
- Think java is elegant although we don’t use it often.
- Both consider C our favorite language.
- Don’t care for 4Chan.
That’s about it, but it’s more traits than Your JoeDog would have thought possible. Click that and you’ll see what I mean. If the rich aren’t like the rest of us, then neither is Stallman. And that’s a good thing because the guy’s a treasure. (Even if he is a pain in the ass.)
If you’re following the 3.1.0 thread, then you know siege clients are essentially capped by your operating system’s FD_SETSIZE. For most of us, that means 1024. You can increase its capacity by recompiling your kernel, an operation Your JoeDog hasn’t attempted in over 20 years. In all likelihood, you don’t feel like doing that either.
To overcome this limit, we switched from select to poll in siege-3.1.0 rc2. If your OS supported poll, then you’d use that mechanism to test socket readiness. So while that increased our capacity, it wrecked our performance. Why? It’s still not clear why but that’s the feedback we received from several testers. It also matches our own experience.
Which brings us to release candidate 3. We now use both mechanisms. If a socket descriptor is less than FD_SETSIZE, then we test it with select. If it’s greater than that, we use poll. Thus far it seems like a good compromise until we develop better method for high volume socket testing.
NOTE: If your web server is not configured to run a pool of 1024 threads, do NOT configure siege with that many simulated users. If you use more siege threads than available web server threads, connections will back up while waiting for handlers and before you know it, you’ll have a mess. You’ve been warned.
Here’s a handy-dandy labor saving tip for you. Let’s say — and why not? — we want to make a linky-link like Pittsburgh Pirates in WordPress. With the URL copied to your clipboard, highlight the link text in the WordPress editor then hit Ctrl-v. Done and done. No need to use the chain link icon. You’re welcome.
NOTE: Andrew McCutchen tied the game for the Pirates in the bottom of the eight as Your JoeDog was working on the Pittsburgh Pirates link for this entry….
Look, Your JoeDog is willing to support his friends’ fitness efforts but if they start posting vital signs to social media, he may have to de-friend them. Would anyone actually post their vital signs? Yes, and believe it or not, there’s an app for that.
The Wifi Body Scale measures weight, body fat, heart rate, and the air quality of whatever room your scale is in. It comes with Wifi networking and a Health Mate app that lets you share its data to social media.
In theory, the app holds you accountable as others bear witness to a personal struggle. But to what extent can they participate in this public shaming? Is it okay to “Like” unflattering updates? Can they note that, um, “your numbers are really going up”?
Keep in mind this technology is still in its infancy. As it becomes more refined, we may one day be able to tell who’s overweight simply by looking at them….
From Tom Goodwin over at TechCrunch:
Uber, the world’s largest taxi company, owns no vehicles. Facebook, the world’s most popular media owner, creates no content. Alibaba, the most valuable retailer, has no inventory. And Airbnb, the world’s largest accommodation provider, owns no real estate. Something interesting is happening.
Indeed. The future belongs to transaction-skimmers…
Earlier today we told you about a hard limit in siege. Since it relied on select rather than poll, it was unable to open more than 1024 concurrent sockets on most — maybe all! — operating systems. Now Your JoeDog never needs that many sockets but some of you are over 1000. When you scheduled that many, your OS would abort siege. Don’t worry, the Supreme Court is cool with that.
This limitation was the result of a design decision from 1999. Fortunately, a 2001 design decision made it easy to incorporate both mechanisms in the same distribution. The configure script will check to see if you have poll and, really, in 2015 you should have it. If you do, it will use that mechanism to test your sockets.
Nothing changes for you dinosaurs. If you don’t have poll, then you can carry on with your precious select.
So Your JoeDog could use some beta testers. The changes have been submitted to the main branch at github.com and they’re available in this distribution: http://download.joedog.org/siege/beta/siege-3.1.0-rc2.tar.gz
Test it, Doggers, test its little brains out.
Back in 1999-ish, Your JoeDog made a decision! Once he makes a decision, he doesn’t look back. “That’s over, Doggers. It’s time to move on.” And move on we did. Since 1999 we’ve been using select to check if our socket descriptor is ready for input. This is an important test because siege pounds your web server until it calls him “Daddy.” If the socket doesn’t get ready, then the request must time out or siege will hang.
We don’t want more hanging chads!
There were two mechanisms we could have used to accomplish this: poll and select. We chose select because it was more flexible and more readily available. At the time, we supported a great many platforms: Solaris, HP-UX, AIX, SCO, BSD, Linux, etc. The downside to select was its capacity. The fd_set couldn’t handle numbers higher than 1024. Well back in 1999, Yahoo! might have been doing 1024 concurrent connections but mere mortals didn’t need that capacity.
Recently we told you that siege crashes when large pools of simultaneous users are created. We finally got to the bottom of that problem and it dates back to that 1999 decision. Siege aborts when socket descriptors larger than 1024 are passed to FD_SET. We will fix this problem but there’s currently no ETA. It will require extensive testing and more of those difficult 1999-ish decisions.
For example, should we just stone-cold switch to poll or should we support both mechanisms? The latter will create a macro soup; does anyone have a stomach for that? Another option is create an array of fd_sets and place them on each thread. That would allow us to continue using select. (Your JoeDog kinda likes this option). And finally we could just say “Fsck it.” If you really have that many users, then you can afford Load Runner.
NOTE: To give you some perspective on traffic, this site is ranked 155,295 in the US. We almost never exceed 50 hits a second. Your JoeDog professionally webmasters a site ranked under 8000 and it almost never exceeds 100 hits a second. You must have a really large audience to generate 1024 hits a second. The vast majority of you should be fine with 255 threads or less.